Pyrheliometer observations as an indicator of the climatological persistence of clouds

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by
U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories , Boulder, Colo
Pyrheliometer, Cloudiness -- United States, Solar radiation -- United S
StatementT.M. Thompson
SeriesNOAA technical memorandum ERL ARL -- 97
ContributionsAir Resources Laboratories, Environmental Research Laboratories (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Pagination78 p. :
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL13604219M

Pyrheliometer observations as an indicator of the climatological persistence of clouds. Published Date: Series: NOAA technical memorandum ERL ARL ; 97 Language: English [PDF MB] Viewer; Details; Supporting Files; Related Documents; You May Also Like; This document cannot be previewed automatically as it exceeds 5 MB Author: T.

Thompson. A standard pyrheliometer has about a 5 degree cone of acceptance. Practically, this means that the pyrheliometer must always be pointed nearly directly at the sun for it to measure the intensity of the radiation coming directly from the sun.

Therefore, the pyrheliometer is attached to a tracking device to make it always point at the sun. This divergence in pyrheliometer behavior seemed to be caused by the measurement uncertainty of the instruments.

This is not unique, as Pyrheliometers 1, 2, 6, 8, 9 and 16 showed the same behavior. Conclusions. A new pyrheliometer calibration protocol has been developed which harmonizes the ISO and ASTM by: 3.

Conditions Criteria Mean Direct Night sza > degs clouds sza 50 & stddev > 10 W/m2 Clear sza W/m2 Very Clear sza & stddev. The vertical structure of Arctic low-level clouds and Arctic boundary layer is studied, using observations from ASCOS (Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study), in the central Arctic, in late summer A climatological study of sea breeze clouds in the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula (Alicante, Spain).pdf Available via license: CC BY-NC Content may be subject to copyright.

a b s t r a c t During a major sudden stratospheric warming event (21–27 January ), Mie-lidar observations at Gadanki (N, E) show persistent occurrence of cirrus clouds.

As part of a series of papers examining metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables (Feistel et alPawlowicz et alDickson et al ), in this paper we examine atmospheric relative term humidity indicates water vapour, normally admixed with air or other dry liquid water and aqueous solutions, above ice, and in pore spaces lined.

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For all observation times a percentage of about 70 % of the satellite detected clouds in development stage ”mature” overlap with radar cells when applying a minimum overlap criterion, i.e.

one. Be better than a persistence forecast or a climatological forecast. From this observation you conclude that the wind is ____ with height and ____ advection is occurring between the cloud layers.

Back; cold. As latent heat is released inside the clouds of a hurricane, the warming of the air aloft creates an area of ____ aloft.

Lecture 17 – Temperature Stable References (5/15/18) Page CMOS Analog Circuit Design © P.E. Allen - PRINCIPLES OF TEMPERATURE STABLE REFERENCES. Full text of "A meteorological treatise on the circulation and radiation in the atmospheres of the earth and of the sun" See other formats.

A total of 38 individual clouds were identified with cloud bases at or below m in February out of a total of 81 clouds within 3 km. On this basis ∼47% clouds are expected to intersect the mountains.

Approximately 39%, 42% and 70% of the clouds had cloud bases at or below m in March, April and Mayrespectively. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Scientific and Technical Information. To improve the parameterization of clouds in GCMs and to improve our understanding of the role of clouds in the earth–atmosphere climate system, as a first step it is necessary to characterize cloud microphysical and macrophysical properties based on long-term integrated observations from surface- and satellite-based remote sensors.

Observations by radiosondes, satellites, and aircraft have shown that a minimum in water vapor mixing ratio in the lower tropical stratosphere (typically around km altitude) is a climatological.

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Sixteenth ARM Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, NM, March 27 - 31, Philipona et al. (3-coefficients) Win = K1 Vtp + σT 4 case + K3 σ (T 4 dome – T 4 case) + K4 σ Vtp T 3 case [4] Reda et al.

(4-coefficients). The first spaceborne active-sensor analysis of cloud cover atop the Antarctic ice sheets was enabled by NASA’s launch of the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat).In ICESat data from OctoberSpinhirne et al.

() found distinctly greater cloud cover over West (versus East) Antarctica, with a tongue of enhanced cloudiness stretching inland from the Amundsen Sea. GOES persistence correlations were calculated by comparing the satellite observations valid at the analysis time with the observations over the ensuing h period.

The persistence correlations drop rapidly with time, reflecting the complex structure and rapid evolution of the cloud field. Meteorological observations general Meteorological (and related environmental and geophysical) observations are made for a variety of reasons.

They are used for the real-time preparation of weather analyses, forecasts and severe weather warnings, for the study of climate, for local weather-dependent operations (for example, local.

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Researchers began ground observation work to measure sunshine duration more than a century ago [], and almost all countries/regions are still using field main measurement methods are direct measurement with sunshine duration recorders, the pyrheliometric method using direct irradiance from a pyrheliometer, and pyranometric algorithms using the global irradiance from a.

Terminology as forecast lead time or temporal resolution are visualized in Fig. and discussed in the following section. Forecast lead time is the time difference between the start of the forecast and the occurrence of a forecasted value.

In the case of a forecast initialization at UTC and a forecast value forthe forecast lead time is 45 minutes. The book has also been extensively reorganized to weave issues of Arctic change throughout the text, rather than confining them to a single chapter.

It is the first to provide an integrated assessment of the Arctic climate system, recognizing that a true understanding of how the Arctic functions lies in appreciating the interactions among its. Most ships make weather observations four times per day; the observations are recorded in logbooks and also transmitted by radio to world meteorological centers.

In a recent typical year, reports from an average of ships were received at,UTC and from ships at,UTC. The Ocean Tipping Points collaborative research project seeks to understand and characterize tipping points in ocean ecosystems. Tipping points occur when small shifts in human pressures or environmental conditions bring about large, sometimes abrupt changes in a ecosystem.

Diaries of meteorological observations in the archives of the observatory start from 1st January Such names as Th.

Clausen and Carl Laurenti are mentioned, look at the Virtual Museum of Tartu Observatory. First lasting meteorological observations in Tartu were set by J.J.F.W.

Parrot in Continuous observations were initiated by L.F. Kämtz who came to Tartu in AMS Publications. High-impact, peer-reviewed scientific journals, award-winning books, a long-standing series of meteorological monographs, and the highly regarded Bulletin of.

Weather is the state of the atmosphere at any given time and of the weather that affects people, agriculture, and ecosystems takes place in the lower layer of the atmosphere.

Familiar aspects of weather include temperature, precipitation, clouds, and wind that people experience throughout the course of a day. Observation systems (4): geostationary Data coverage provided by the GOES satellites (cyan and orange) and the METEOSAT satellites (magenta and red) for 00 UTC 10 May The total number of observations was  The problem is the cloud theory [Twomey ] uses a very simplistic approximation to the physics.

Whilst it does successfully predict increased albedo for thin clouds with smaller droplets [e.g. ship’s track clouds], it cannot apply to thick clouds. Climate - Climate - Atmospheric humidity and precipitation: Atmospheric humidity, which is the amount of water vapour or moisture in the air, is another leading climatic element, as is precipitation.

All forms of precipitation, including drizzle, rain, snow, ice crystals, and hail, are produced as a result of the condensation of atmospheric moisture that forms clouds in which some of the.chanical moisture indicator.

The period of exact weather observations had its beginning in about with the invention of the ther-mometer by Galileo and Sanctorius of Padua. InTorricelli, a pupil of Galileo, in-vented the barometer known as "Torricelli's tube." Five years later, Pascal persuaded his brother-in-law, Perrier, who lived near.A storm in that caused the loss of the Royal Charter inspired FitzRoy to develop charts to allow predictions to be made, which he called "forecasting the weather", thus coining the term "weather forecast".

Fifteen land stations were established to use the telegraph to transmit to him daily reports of weather at set times leading to the first gale warning service.